Work Package 2






Rural Urban Regions – overview of typologies


An introduction to the development of typologies of European urban-rural regions. Three different categories of regions are identified: 1) Studies in which the hierarchical structure is determined by the functional profile as well as the range of functions performed, the population potential, and the political and administrative status of the main urban centre, 2) Typologies based on urbanization level and the morphology of the settlement, as well as density and redistribution of population, 3) Studies focused on the interdependence of and interaction between the urban, peri-urban and rural zones. (D2.1.1)



Towards a new RUR typology


This document by ARCsys contains a draft classification of the major European Rural Urban Regions at NUTS3 level. It contains 4 different characteristics: 1) Morphology (core city pattern and related sub-centres), 2) Shape (compact or dispersed), 3) Dynamics (growing or shrinking), 4) planning policy systems (local/federal/centralized). The typology layers can be applied both separately and combined. (D2.1.3). 



National spatial planning policies and governance typology


Government structures and planning systems in 27 EU countries. The report presents government structures, and national planning systems, with emphasis on the sub-national level. A typology is developed clarifying the main types of government and national planning systems in the EU countries. (D2.2.1).  



Review of instruments with indirect effect on regulation of peri-urban land uses


This report developed by Metropolitan Research Institute produces a systematic overview of public sector regulations, policies and tools with effects on the peri-urban land uses, e.g., financial means (subsidies, taxation), sectoral policies (housing, transport), and regulatory tools for local governments in selected regions. (D2.2.2). 



Delination of response Functions


This report developed by ZALF deals with the methodological approach to derive response functions based on regression models. These functions are meant to quantify the functional relationships between land use changes and impact issues relevant for sustainability in the fields of landscape bound recreation, biodiversity, commuting and traffic, population, housing and household structure, migration, social issues and emissions. It is suggested to link changes in e.g. the share of natural and semi-natural areas and the fragmentation by major roads and settlements to the dynamics of population and economy. (D2.3.2)




Response functions for population and household structure


This report developed by the AIT develops response functions to estimate changes in population and household structure as a reaction on, or as reason of, certain spatial development trends in the urban, peri-urban and rural sub-regions in Europe. It applies the response functions to the NUTSx regions of the entire EU 27 to show the effects of different peri-urbanisation trends on population and household structure. (D2.3.3). 



Response functions for migration, ethnicity and ageing


This report explores the nature of the phenomenon of migration in Europe, with the aim of understanding how the different types and patterns of migration within and between European countries affect land use change. (D2.3.4)



Response functions for housing demand


This report developed by Cemagref identifies and describes the interdependencies of different factors influencing the interactions between housing and land-use issues. The report includes a theoretical framework to address housing demand and urban shape through a location choice model, presents the spatial distribution of housing within each RUR-typology, and exemplifies location choice modelling in the Montpellier NUTs-3 region. (D2.3.5). 



Response functions for economic development and work places


This report developed by PAS analyzes the statistical association between economic development and land use for the set of NUTS-3 units, covering the area of EU-27 countries. Positive association is confirmed between the urbanization level and such measures as GDP per capita, total employment rate, and time-distance to the unit’s centre. (D2.3.6). 



Response function for commuting


The report identifies and describes the interdependencies of different factors (variables) which are influencing the interactions between commutingand land-use issues. The results are developed into a response function. In rural-to-urban regions, commuting reflects the interaction between urban and peri-urban areas.Response functions should be useful in predicting future development. (D2.3.7)



Response functions for energy consumption and air pollution


This report developed by AIT compiles a spatially-explicit reference framework to identify and assess land use relationships in Rural-Urban Regions and in the NUTSx regions referring to energy demand and primary air pollution due to activities from housing, traffic and commerce. It develops response functions for air pollution and applies the response functions to all NUTSx regions of EU 27 to show the effects of different peri-urbanisation trends on air pollution.




Response functions on agricultural, ecology and recreation


This report developed by ZALF qualifies the relationship between urban areas and different indicators for agricultural production, habitats and ecological regulation as well as for recreation. It provides a regression analysis between artificial surface and each indicator, using values for the NUTSx regions for the whole of Europe. It identifies that the impact of urbanisation on agriculture, biodiversity and recreation is mainly negative. (D2.3.9/D2.3.10)



Scenario maps on population

This report presents the outcomes of the response function applications to estimate expected effects on the socio-demographic structure and the expected changes for the years 2015 and 2025 for different peri-urbanisation trends. Results are provided for the European NUTSx regions. (D2.3.11)



Scenario maps on working places and economy


This report presents a set of maps concerning employment in Europe within units of NUTSx. The set of maps is provided for the total employment rate per 1000 inhabitants and the share of employment in specific sectors in total employment. In every section the situation for the year 2000 is presented combined with maps for four scenarios for the year 2025. (D2.3.12)



Scenario maps on emissions

This report presents the outcomes of the response function applications to estimate air pollution pattern and expected changes for the years 2015 and 2025 expected for different peri-urbanisation trends. Results are provided for the European NUTSx regions. (D2.3.13)



Scenario maps on agriculture, environment and recreation


This report presents values for the year 2000 of the different indicators used to describe the environmental, agricultural and recreational status of the European NUTSx regions as well as the expected changes for the years 2015 and 2025. (D2.3.14)



Review of policy options of how to control rural – peri-urban – urban relationships in order to steer the development of Rural-Urban Regions and which instruments are used to conduct planning on a spatially explicit level of Rural-Urban Regions.


This deliverable report is part of PLURELs Workpackage 2.4: Spatial development strategies and scenarios, where a review of policy options and their effectiveness is included.  Our purpose of this paper is to look into different policies, strategies, measures and instruments that aim at managing urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. (D2.4.1)



Procedures and protocols to upscale results from high-resolution spatially-explicit development scenarios


This report describes the application of MOLAND model to Leipzig and Koper regions. On the first case, simulation of land use evolution (2000-2025), considered different scenarios developed by local stakeholders - “Business-as-usual”, “Hyper-Tech”, “Peak Oil” and “Fragmentation”. (D2.4.2)



Spatially explicit development scenarios for Leipzig, Haaglanden, Montpellier and Koper


This report, which is divided into three parts, produces scenarios for test cases in the Hague (NL) (D2.4.3a), Montpellier (FRA) (D2.4.3b), Leipzig (DE) and Koper (SI) using the MOLAND land use model. The model handles each test case independently and compared across cases (D2.4.3c). The study demonstrates the flexibility of the modelling tool, as being able to translate local policies in concrete land use projections, but also highlights the difficulties of generalising processes and procedures such as land planning, which are by nature very local and geographically specific. (D2.4.3)



Economic evaluation of the land-use transport relationship in the European region


The report describes the development of a generic scenario-based CBA methodology for the impact evaluation of rapid rail provisions on urban form and development for the EU countries, particularly for the Plurel Regions. (D2.4.5)